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The Royal Government (王政府 Ōseifu?) is the ruling system over the people of Paradis Island. From the capital of Mitras, the false Fritz monarchy had for the past hundred years acted as the face of the Royal Government while the Reiss family, formerly the true Fritz family, acted as the secret ruling bloodline. After the coup d'état, a majority of the old government was displaced in favor of a military-led system with the Reiss family ruling publicly. Historia Reiss is currently in command as Queen of the Walls.
Prior to the coup d'état, the Royal Government is outwardly led by the puppet king Fritz, who is unrelated to the Reiss family, the true descendants of Karl Fritz. The officials who make up the rest of Fritz's royal government are different from the majority race that comprises the bulk of the population within the Walls, which makes them immune to the mind-altering abilities of the Founding Titan. They are likely Eldians of minority races who curried favor with Karl Fritz in order to obtain their families' positions.
Following the coup d'état, Fritz's position as monarch is replaced with Historia Reiss, a direct descendant of Karl Fritz. The government is controlled by members of the military, who take over from the deposed nobles from the prior assembly. The leaders of the military branches occasionally congregate under Darius Zackly to make key decisions on the future of the Walls. Despite Historia's role as Queen, she is little more than a figurehead, with the Walls effectively becoming a military dictatorship instead.
Fritz's government is largely corrupt and uncaring of the larger population. When Erwin Smith meets the chancellery he realizes that they want to protect their positions and estates more than humanity. This is borne out when Dot Pixis stages a false alert that Wall Rose has been breached by the Armored and Colossus Titans. Fritz's various court advisors choose to seal Wall Sheena even if it would mean the death of half of humanity, because they do not want to risk the possibility of a civil war. One expresses disgust at the thought of refugees in their territory.
Since the ruling nobles are not Subjects of Ymir, they zealously guard their authority. It is not possible for an unknown party to marry into a family due to their wish to remain uninfected by "filthy blood" that would put their power at risk, and after the destruction of Wall Maria they cease to hire any new servants who could potentially be an outside invader.
During the reign of Uri Reiss, one of the noblemen of the Assembly informed Kenny Ackerman of the Reiss family's true royalty. After Kenny's attempt to assassinate Uri failed, this nobleman was removed from the Assembly and Kenny took his place.
After the operation where Eren Yeager was rescued from Reiner Braun and Bertolt Hoover, the Assembly summons Erwin Smith to the chancellery in Mitras. During his meeting with the Assembly, Erwin concludes that the nobility within the Royal Government cares only for their own positions and possessions, giving no regard to humanity as a whole. Conspiring with Dot Pixis, together they plan to overthrow the monarchy and appoint a new leader who will work towards the betterment of humanity and allow the Survey Corps to continue its attempts to reach Shiganshina District.
The opportunity to overthrow the Royal Government comes when Erwin Smith receives the news that the Reiss family is the true royal bloodline. After sending the Survey Corps to search for Rod Reiss, the true king of humanity, Erwin Smith is arrested by the Military Police Brigade, framed for orchestrating the murder of Dimo Reeves. When he is brought before King Fritz, the meeting is interrupted by Anka bringing false news that Wall Rose has fallen and Stohess District was under attack. The Assembly decides to close off the gates of Wall Sheena, refusing to accept any refugees. With this proof of the Royal Government's selfish nature, Commander-in-Chief Darius Zackly arrests the nobility and dethrones the Fritz monarchy.
Control over the nation of the Walls is given over to the military. After the death of Rod Reiss outside of Orvud District, Historia Reiss is publicly crowned as the new monarch of the Walls. Members of the military take over the positions of the former Assembly.